The three synoptists Mark, Matthew, and Luke portray Yeshua making use of the Greek verb baptizo– (βαπτίζω) and noun baptisma (βάπτισμα) in five sayings: Luke 12:50, Mark 10:38–39, Mark 11:30 [with Luke 20:4, Matt 21:25], Matthew 28:19, and Acts 1:5.1 These sayings not only help define the contours and boundaries of baptizo– and baptisma in…

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Introduction Hashem’s wilderness Tabernacle (Mishkan) and later Temple (Mikdash) feature prominently in the Tanakh, and by all accounts the Temple remained a focal point of Yeshua’s concern throughout his ministry. Yet Yeshua prophesied the Temple’s ruin (Luke 21:6), and its destruction a generation later in CE 70 has been taken by supersessionists to signify the…

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Less than a century after the second Temple’s destruction two respected sages, R. Jose and R. Meir,1 apparently viewed Ezekiel 36:25 as a national eschatological marker for Israel. Our Rabbis taught: Mamzerim and Nethinim will become pure in the future:2 this is R. Jose’s view. R. Meir said: They will not become pure. Said R.…

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